We are pleased to announce that the Justice Department and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) released updated guidance today on the application of the federal Fair Housing Act (FHA) to state and local land use and zoning laws. The guidance is designed to help state and local governments better understand how to comply with the FHA when making zoning and land use decisions as well as to help members of the public understand their rights under the FHA.
“The Fair Housing Act helps protect open, free and integrated communities,” said Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General Vanita Gupta, head of the Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division. “Government officials, housing providers and the general public need to understand how land use and zoning decisions can create barriers to equal housing opportunity. We hope this guidance will help communities make these decisions free from discrimination.”
“Zoning and land use are inherently local decisions,” said Gustavo Velasquez, Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity for the Department of Housing and Urban Development. “This updated guidance will help give localities and the American people a clearer line of what could constitute housing discrimination under the federal Fair Housing Act. Cities will also have more resources to understand their fair housing rights and responsibilities in the course of making decisions related to various types of housing, including group homes for residents with disabilities.”
The largest “clarifications” for me (which are entirely consistent with the positions we have been advocating for) came in the following Q&A responses:
Q. When, if ever, can a local government limit the number of group homes that can locate in a certain area?
A concern expressed by some local government officials and neighborhood residents is that certain jurisdictions, governments, or particular neighborhoods within a jurisdiction, may come to have more than their “fair share” of group homes. There are legal ways to address this concern. The Fair Housing Act does not prohibit most governmental programs designed to encourage people of a particular race to move to neighborhoods occupied predominantly by people of another race. A local government that believes a particular area within its boundaries has its “fair share” of group homes, could offer incentives to providers to locate future homes in other neighborhoods.
However, some state and local governments have tried to address this concern by enacting laws requiring that group homes be at a certain minimum distance from one another. The Department of Justice and HUD take the position, and most courts that have addressed the issue agree, that density restrictions are generally inconsistent with the Fair Housing Act. We also believe, however, that if a neighborhood came to be composed largely of group homes, that could adversely affect individuals with disabilities and would be inconsistent with the objective of integrating persons with disabilities into the community. Especially in the licensing and regulatory process, it is appropriate to be concerned about the setting for a group home. A consideration of over-concentration could be considered in this context. This objective does not, however, justify requiring separations which have the effect of foreclosing group homes from locating in entire neighborhoods.
Q. What kinds of health and safety regulations can be imposed upon group homes?
The great majority of group homes for persons with disabilities are subject to state regulations intended to protect the health and safety of their residents. The Department of Justice and HUD believe, as do responsible group home operators, that such licensing schemes are necessary and legitimate. Neighbors who have concerns that a particular group home is being operated inappropriately should be able to bring their concerns to the attention of the responsible licensing agency. We encourage the states to commit the resources needed to make these systems responsive to resident and community needs and concerns.
Regulation and licensing requirements for group homes are themselves subject to scrutiny under the Fair Housing Act. Such requirements based on health and safety concerns can be discriminatory themselves or may be cited sometimes to disguise discriminatory motives behind attempts to exclude group homes from a community. Regulators must also recognize that not all individuals with disabilities living in group home settings desire or need the same level of services or protection. For example, it may be appropriate to require heightened fire safety measures in a group home for people who are unable to move about without assistance. But for another group of persons with disabilities who do not desire or need such assistance, it would not be appropriate to require fire safety measures beyond those normally imposed on the size and type of residential building involved.
Q. Can a local government consider the feelings of neighbors in making a decision about granting a permit to a group home to locate in a residential neighborhood?
In the same way a local government would break the law if it rejected low-income housing in a community because of neighbors’ fears that such housing would be occupied by racial minorities, a local government can violate the Fair Housing Act if it blocks a group home or denies a requested reasonable accommodation in response to neighbors’ stereotypical fears or prejudices about persons with disabilities. This is so even if the individual government decision-makers are not themselves personally prejudiced against persons with disabilities. If the evidence shows that the decision-makers were responding to the wishes of their constituents, and that the constituents were motivated in substantial part by discriminatory concerns, that could be enough to prove a violation.
Of course, a city council or zoning board is not bound by everything that is said by every person who speaks out at a public hearing. It is the record as a whole that will be determinative. If the record shows that there were valid reasons for denying an application that were not related to the disability of the prospective residents, the courts will give little weight to isolated discriminatory statements. If, however, the purportedly legitimate reasons advanced to support the action are not objectively valid, the courts are likely to treat them as pretextual, and to find that there has been discrimination.
For example, neighbors and local government officials may be legitimately concerned that a group home for adults in certain circumstances may create more demand for on-street parking than would a typical family. It is not a violation of the Fair Housing Act for neighbors or officials to raise this concern and to ask the provider to respond. A valid unaddressed concern about inadequate parking facilities could justify denying the application, if another type of facility would ordinarily be denied a permit for such parking problems. However, if a group of individuals with disabilities or a group home operator shows by credible and unrebutted evidence that the home will not create a need for more parking spaces, or submits a plan to provide whatever off-street parking may be needed, then parking concerns would not support a decision to deny the home a permit.
The guidance is available online at https://www.justice.gov/crt/fair-housing-policy-statements-and-guidance-0
Much thanks as always to Steve Polin, Esq., in Washington, D.C., who let us know the updated guidance was released.